Symptoms, Types and Causes of Cerebrovascular Diseases
A group of conditions, disorders, and diseases that affect the blood vessels and blood supply to the brain is termed as cerebrovascular disease. Stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), aneurysm and vascular malformation are included in cerebrovascular diseases. Dr. Anil Dhingra, the best surgeon in Chandigarh points out symptoms, causes, and types of cerebrovascular diseases.
The location of the blockage and its impact on brain tissue is responsible for the symptoms of the disease. However, some common symptoms are as follows:
- Severe and sudden headache
- Paralysis or weakness of one side of the body
- Difficulty in communicating or slurred speech
- Losing vision on one side
- Loss of balance
Types of cerebrovascular diseases include:
- Ischemic Stroke
When a blood clot or atherosclerotic plaque blocks a blood vessel that supplies blood to the brain, it is known as Ischemic stroke. A blood clot may form in an already narrow artery. Death of brain cells because of the lack of supply of blood to the brain is responsible for a stroke.
When a clot breaks off in the body and travels to the brain to block a smaller artery, it is known as Embolism. A tear in the carotid artery can also lead to ischemic stroke. The tear allows blood to flow between the layers of the carotid artery which results in narrowing of the artery and reducing blood supply to the brain.
- Hemorrhagic stroke
A disease which occurs when a blood vessel in the brain weakens and bursts open and causes blood to leak into the brain. This leaking of the blood puts pressure on the brain tissue leading to edema, which damages brain tissue. The haemorrhage can also lead to nearby parts of the brain to lose their supply of oxygen-rich blood.
- Cerebral Aneurysm
Structural problems in the blood vessels of the brain lead to Cerebral Aneurysm. A bulge in the arterial wall that can rupture and bleed is called aneurysm. The blood vessels rupture and bleed between two membranes surrounding the brain.
In the case of a cerebrovascular event, the patient needs emergency treatment. Rapid assessment and treatment become important because, in the case of strokes, medications must begin within a specific period of onset of symptoms.
Tissue Plasminogen Activator (TPA) is a medication that is administered by a neurologist in case of an acute stroke as it helps to break up the blood clot.
Surgery might be recommended by a neurologist after evaluating a person who has a brain hemorrhage as it helps to reduce the increased pressure caused by blood.
Carotid endarterectomy requires the doctor to make an incision in the carotid artery and remove the plague. This results in the blood to flow again. The artery is then repaired with sutures or a graft.
These are some common treatments. However, it may vary from individual to individual depending on their medical history.
A cerebrovascular event can cause permanent brain damage following which a person may experience permanent or temporary disability. For this reason, a neurosurgeon may suggest a range of supportive or rehabilitative therapies so that a patient can retain as much function as possible. Therapies may include physical, speech, psychological, or occupational therapy.